Equipment

Chemical Characterisation

ISEM Photoelectronic analyser
Photoelectron and Auger spectroscopy: Surface Analysis

X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), also known as ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis), and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) are surface analysis techniques that can provide the elemental composition (for all elements except hydrogen and helium), and often also the chemical state of the elements in the surface region of the sample (i. e. in a top layer of a few nanometres). Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy (UPS) can probe valence band levels and is especially valuable for studying semiconductors.

Advantages:

  • The XPS is a non-destructive, highly-sensitive technique that can provide both quantitative and chemical state information of the surface of a material; all vacuum-stable materials (metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics) are suitable for analysis. The XPS and AES are capable of detecting the elements with atomic concentration as low as 0.1%. In XPS, a sample is irradiated by Mg Kα or Al Kα radiation, and the emitted photoelectrons are analyzed using a PHOIBOS 100 hemispherical analyzer produced by SPECS GmbH. In AES, the sample is irradiated by a beam of electrons, whereas in UPS the excitation is provided by ultraviolet light.
  • The main advantage of the XPS is its capability to resolve contributions to the spectrum from different chemical states of an element, thus enabling the chemical analysis.
  • The instrument is also equipped with an ion source which allows for etching the sample, and therefore enables studying the chemical composition as function of depth.

For further information or measurement arrangements, please contact ISEM Instrument Scientist: Dr Dongqi Shi

E-mail: dongqi@uow.edu.au
 

ISEM JOEL
JEOL JSM-7500FA

The JEOL JSM-7500FA is a semi in lens, cold cathode, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), that can attain high resolution images showing surface detail, internal structure and compositional information. The cold cathode, field emission source produces a very fine probe size with a low energy spread, that in combination with the semi-in-lens design, can achieve 0.6nm and 1.4nm resolution at accelerating voltages of 30kV and 1kV respectively. The Gentle Beam (GB) mode of this instrument decelerates the electron beam to lower the landing energy of the electrons on the sample. GB mode provides exceptional image quality down to an acceleration voltage of 0.1kV, reduces charging effects so that insulating materials can be imaged uncoated, and reduces damage in beam sensitive materials. 

The JSM-7500FA is equipped with secondary, backscatter, and transmitted electron detectors. The standard secondary electron detector provides traditional surface topography information at higher accelerating voltages and is less sensitive to adverse effects of specimen charging. The in-lens secondary electron detector improves collection efficiency when the SEM is operating at a low accelerating voltage and the specimen is at a short working distance. The electron signal can also be energy filtered to provide a secondary or backscattered electron priority image to show topography or atomic number contrast. The solid state backscattered electron detector can provide atomic number or surface roughness contrast. The Low Angle Backscattered Electron (LABE) detector can provide atomic number contrast, or fine surface detail at low accelerating voltage when used in combination with GB mode. The Transmitted Electron Detector (TED) is inserted underneath the specimen and images electrons that pass through the specimen. The TED is only suitable for thin foils specifically prepared for transmitted electron imaging or nano-sized materials on thin support films, but can attain the highest possible resolution of 0.6nm on this instrument.

A JEOL hyper-minicup Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) with an Ultra Thin Window (UTW) is also attached to the JSM-7500FA to provide chemical information. This configuration can detect and quantify most elements in the periodic table above Carbon in point, area and line profile modes, or a full two dimension map showing elemental distribution.

For further information or measurement arrangements, please contact: Tony Romeo
E-mail: tromeo@uow.edu.au

ISEM JOEL6460A
JEOL JSM-6460A

The JSM-6460A is a conventional SEM with a LaB6 filament electron source, and is equipped for imaging and micro-analysis. At an accelerating voltage of 30kV, this instrument can achieve 3.0.nm resolution. Operation down to an accelerating voltage of 0.3kV is possible so that insulating materials can be imaged uncoated, and to minimise damage in beam sensitive materials.  The tungsten (W) filament provides an extremely stable electron source with a high beam current capacity for strong back scattered electron images and X-ray signals. A solid state backscattered electron detector that can provide atomic number or surface roughness contrast, is permanently mounted on the objective lens.

The JSM6460LA has a large specimen chamber that is easily accessible. Large, irregular shaped specimens can be inserted, and at the maximum working distance, magnification can be as low as 5x to provide a wide field of view with a large depth of field. This makes it ideal for inspection of large objects such as metallurgical samples and printed circuit boards.

A JEOL hyper-minicup Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) with an Ultra Thin Window (UTW) is also attached to the JSM-6460A to provide chemical information. This configuration can detect and quantify most elements in the periodic table above Carbon in point, area and line profile modes, or a full two dimension map showing elemental distribution.

The JSM-6460A is also equipped with a Raith Elphy quantum Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) system. This attachment consists of a scan generator electronic board with an integrated beam blanking unit and operating software, that controls the SEM beam scanning to produce micro and nanostructures. It is applicable to the fields of microelectronics, nanotechnology, optics and quantum devices.

For further information or measurement arrangements, please contact: Prof. Alexey Pan

E-mail: pan@uow.edu.au
 

ISEM JEOLJEM
JEOL JEM-2011

A 200 keV LaB6 JEOL JEM-2011 transmission electron microscope (TEM) with a double tilt holder capable of imaging up to 1.5 million times at a spatial resolution of 0.16 nm and ideal for X-ray microanalysis of nanoscale structures. The JEOL 2011 TEM is equipped with high quality side-mounted Olympus Megaview-II and bottom-mounted Keinview CCD cameras with the Soft Imaging Systems iTEM software for recording high resolution digital images in: (i) electron diffraction (High Resolution (HR), Selected Area (SA), High Dispersion (HD)), (ii) conventional dark-field and, (iii) bright-field (conventional and scanning TEM (STEM)) modes. When coupled with the 30 mm2, 144 eV JEOL JED-2200 EDS detector, the microscope is also capable of operating in STEM mode by focussing the electron beam on a 0.3 nm spot for quantitative chemical profile or elemental mapping and crystallographic analysis.

For further information or measurement arrangements, please contact: Dr. David Wexler davidw@uow.edu.au

ISEM Vista
Vista MPX axial simultaneous ICP-AE Spectrometer

ICP-AOS Spectrometer. Wide range of elements can be analysed with sensitivity of 10 ppb. Automated sample introduction system (more than 20 samples can be analysed in one setting).

ISEM DTA
DTA/TG 1100°C

Mettler-Toledo TG/DTA System has high sensitivity for phase formation analysis and oxygen content. Wide range of atmospheres and temperatures (up to 1100 C) can be applied.

For further information or measurement arrangements, please contact: Dr. Konstantin Konstantinov konstan@uow.edu.au

ISEM XRD
X-Ray diffractometer (XRD)

GBC MMA XRD for bulk and thin film samples. Solid state detector has improved sensitivity. It has additional options for pole figure and thin film characterisation.

For further information or measurement arrangements, please contact: Dr. Germanas Peleckis peleckis@uow.edu.au

ISEM Pfeiffer Vacuum
Pfeiffer Vacuum Mass Spectrometer (MS)

Mass spectrometry is one of the most widely used analytical methods for identifying chemical elements and compounds. Its capillary inlet enables a quasi segregation-free gas supply. A pressure-regulated gas inlet is available for analysing samples at varying pressures.

Advantages: 

  • Qualitative and quantitative gas analysis, connection port for calibration gas inlet systems
  • Low detection limit (< 1 ppm), even for condensable gases
  • Heated capillary inlet, up to 350 °C
  • Bakeable all-metal sealed high vacuum chamber for low backgrounds
  • Monitoring of up to 128 masses
  • Mass ranges of 1 to 100 amu,
  • 1 to 200 amu and 1 to 300 amu
  • Applications from vacuum up to atmospheric pressure

For further information or measurement arrangements, please contact: Dr. Sima Aminorroaya sima@uow.edu.au

 

Last reviewed: 11 May, 2016